Use this Conversion Calculator to convert between commonly used units. Select the current unit in the left column, the desired unit in the right column, and enter a value in the left column to generate the resulting conversion.
Evolution of Measurement Systems
Throughout history, a diverse range of unit systems have emerged. Essentially, a unit system is a set of interrelated measurements guided by certain rules. A single unit of measurement signifies a standardized quantity magnitude used for analogous kinds of quantities, such as length, weight, and volume.
Local Origins and the Need for Standardization
Traditionally, measurement systems were localized, sometimes drawing from random benchmarks, like a monarch's thumb length. Such systems, while suitable locally, posed challenges in broader contexts like trade and science. Therefore, there was an evolution towards more universal systems. Currently, the metric system, the imperial system, and the US customary units are prominent examples.
The International System of Units (SI)
SI is today's predominant metric system, comprising seven foundational units like length, time, and mass. Despite its nearly global adoption in scientific contexts, countries like the US persist with their traditional units. The ingrained nature of the US customary units and the significant hurdles in transitioning to a new system hinder complete SI adoption for daily activities. Thus, tools such as the Conversion Calculator are vital, bridging the gap in global measurement communications.
Origins of the Pound in Arab Civilization
During the eighth and ninth centuries CE, Arab civilization prospered in regions like the Middle East and Spain. They employed coins, specifically the silver dirhem, as standardized units of weight. This was because a minted coin's weight was hard to alter. Notably, ten dirhems were equivalent to an "uncia" in Latin, which is where the term "ounce" comes from.
Spread to Europe and Changes in England
As trade expanded to Europe, including the northern German City States, the pound (16 ounces of silver or 7200 grains) became widely accepted. England, while initially adopting this, had to modify the pound to 5400 grains due to a silver shortage. This change was made by King Offa for coinage, but when William the Conqueror took over, he reinstated the 7200-grain pound for general use, keeping the reduced measure for minting.
Adoption and Evolution in England
While various regions, including England, embraced the pound (with GBP once equal to a pound-weight of silver), the avoirdupois system gained traction in the 16th century during Queen Elizabeth's rule. Stemming from the French term "avoir de pois," this system centered on coal weight, equivalent to 7000 grains or 16 ounces of 437 ½ grains each. As of 1959, most English-speaking nations recognize the avoirdupois pound as 0.45359237 kilograms.
Asian Measurement Systems
Asia also birthed distinct measurement systems. In ancient India, the "Satamana," equivalent to 100 gunja berries' weight, was prevalent. Meanwhile, in third-century BCE China, Emperor Shi Huang Di introduced a comprehensive system. Here, weight was gauged using the 'shi,' roughly 132 pounds. They had units of length like the Chi and Zhang, equivalent to around 25 centimeters and 3 meters, respectively. The Chinese also devised an innovative accuracy check using a specialized bowl, which when struck produced a specific tone, ensuring measurement precision.
The Early Propositions of the Metric System
In 1668, John Wilkins introduced the idea of a decimal system where various measurements were interconnected. This concept was based on the time of a pendulum swing. Later, in 1670, Gabriel Mouton suggested a similar system but rooted it in the Earth's circumference. Though supported by renowned scientists like Jean Picard and Christiaan Huygens, this idea wouldn't be realized for another century.
The 18th Century: Rising Need for Standardization
By mid-1700s, the global exchange of trade and scientific knowledge highlighted the need for uniform measurements. In 1790, the Prince of Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, reached out to both the British and Americans. He proposed a unified standard of length using a pendulum's length. Simultaneously, Thomas Jefferson in the U.S. championed for a ten-based system, leading to his "Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States."
French Embrace of the Metric System
Despite the global discussions, the metric system found its first formalized definition only in French law by 1795. The full-fledged adoption in France took a few more years until 1799. Yet, even then, not all French regions accepted it immediately.
Global Spread of the Metric System
Regions conquered by Napoleon during his rule were early adopters of the metric system. By the late 19th century, a significant part of Europe and almost half of the global population had embraced it. By the 1920s, while many used the imperial or the US customary systems, the majority had shifted towards or away from the metric system.
Advent of the International System of Units
In 1960, the world was introduced to the International System of Units, now the predominant measurement system. While universally adopted by developed nations, the U.S. remains an exception. However, even in the U.S., sectors like science and the military have integrated it extensively.
How to Calculate Conversion rate?
To calculate the conversion rate, divide the number of conversions by the total number of visitors, then multiply the result by 100%. This gives you the percentage of visitors who took a desired action. The formula is: Conversion Rate (%) = (Conversions/Total Visitors) x 100%.
How to Calculate Conversion Cost?
To calculate conversion cost, divide the total cost of your advertising or marketing campaign by the number of conversions obtained. This provides the average cost incurred for each successful conversion. The formula is: Conversion Cost = Total Campaign Cost / Number of Conversions.